Worms (helminths) are parasitic worms that penetrate the human body causing damage to his health and the diseases caused by them are helminthiasis. More than 300 species of these parasites have now been identified. Helminthic infections are widespread, but mainly in areas with a warm and humid climate. The risk group for them includes children 5-15 years old. They often have roundworms and worms. This is explained by the desire of children to get acquainted with the outside world, low immunity to helminths, as well as insufficient acidity of gastric juice. The main habitat of helminths is the intestines.

They enter the human body through the tissue of the casing, when swallowing eggs, larvae of worms with water and food. From mature eggs, larvae are formed in the digestive tract. They enter the bloodstream through the intestinal mucosa and are carried to the liver, gall bladder, bronchi, lungs, heart and brain. During the process of coughing up the sputum and swallowing the saliva, the worms end up back in a person's intestines. There after 70-75 days they will be able to reproduce.

From damage by eggs or larvae to the appearance of mature helminths takes up to 3 months - the early stage of the disease. From the moment the adult is formed, the late stage begins. Worms in the human body live in the intestines for up to a year and lay eggs there, which are passed into the environment through feces.

Types of worms

species of worms in man

There are several types of worms:

  1. Roundworms (nematodes) - roundworms, hookworms, pinworms, whipworms.
  2. Tapeworms (cestodes) - pork tapeworm, broad tapeworm.
  3. Flukes (trematodes) - lung and liver flukes, cat fluke.

Also, helminthiasis differs in the characteristics of development and infection:

Geohelminthiasis. Pest eggs are found in the soil and enter the human body through unwashed fruit and poor personal hygiene.

Biohelminthiasis. These types of worms have an intermediate host - dogs, fish and shellfish. The defeat of humans, who are the final host of the parasites, is associated with the consumption of low-quality fish or contact with animals.

Causes of worms in man

Often, worm eggs are carried into the home on the feet and fur of pets that are walked or left outside. The most common cause of helminthiasis is violation of personal hygiene rules. For example, a person forgot to wash his hands after leaving the house, the toilet or before eating.

The risk of helminthiasis increases if you have a habit of sucking fingers, biting nails or holding a pen or pencil in your mouth.

symptoms of worms in humans

Poor quality washing of plant products causes great harm to health.

Helminthiasis can occur when drinking raw water, as well as when washing food with water from an untested source.

The cause of helminthiasis can be fish or meat if the technology for their preparation is violated. If the beef is not properly cooked, you can be infected with bovine tapeworm; if the fish is not poorly processed, then it is possible to become infected with broad tapeworm; if the pork is not well cooked, there is a high risk of infection with pork tapeworm.

Worms can also be found indoors if it is rarely cleaned with liquid and people walk on it without taking off their outdoor shoes.

Helminthiasis can be contracted from a sick person through bedding, dishes or close contact.

The causes of morbidity are associated with the violation of hygiene rules, poor care of pet cats and dogs, and poor food hygiene. If you exclude these factors, then the probability of getting infected with helminths is minimal.

Signs of worms in humans

Helminthiasis is acute and chronic. The former lead to an allergic reaction. The patient's complaints show signs of allergy and intoxication:

  • weakness and fatigue;
  • skin itching and rash;
  • shortness of breath?
  • cough without phlegm;
  • enlarged lymph nodes;
  • increased gas formation in the intestines.
signs of helminthiasis

In case of chronic helminth infection, the manifestations vary and are related to the location of the worms, their number and the characteristics of the immune response of the human body. The most common symptoms of worms are:

  • weakness, increased fatigue.
  • increased body temperature;
  • dark skin under the eyes.
  • urticaria;
  • appetite disturbances;
  • nausea, vomiting;
  • bad breath;
  • stomach ache?
  • diarrhea or constipation;
  • weight loss;
  • perianal itching;
  • presence of worm fragments in the stool.

In addition, there may be disorders in the functioning of organs affected by helminths. For example, when parasites are in the liver or gallbladder, right hypochondrial pain, nausea, and yellowing of the skin are typical. If helminths have penetrated the lungs, then bronchitis and suffocation are possible. Roundworms can cause myocarditis and heart failure. Children who have been repeatedly diagnosed with worms often suffer from ARVI, stomatitis, gingivitis, and girls have vulvitis.

A typical symptom is bruxism (grinding of the teeth at night). With helminthiasis, the nervous system suffers - a person experiences increased irritability, difficulty concentrating, reduced tolerance for physical activity and disturbed sleep.

In the context of worms in the body, the immune defense suffers, so fungal, pustular skin diseases are added, caries, allergies and accompanying diseases are more serious.

If helminthiasis is not treated in time, the larvae of the parasites will damage the blood vessels, intestines and all vital organs. This affects the patient's condition and well-being.

The products secreted by the larvae during their lifetime poison the human body. They cause local allergies, urticaria, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis.

Worms feed on proteins, minerals and vitamins of the human body. In children, this can cause developmental delays. Hookworms and whipworms feed on the blood of the host, i. e. humans, and cause anemia.

In the case of massive reproduction of worms in the human body, it is possible to disrupt the intestinal microflora and incompletely close the lumen of the intestines and bile ducts. This is a possible cause of appendicitis, cholecystitis and intestinal obstruction.

When to go to the doctor

treatment of worms at the doctor

Helminthiasis must be treated immediately. In the human body, worms interfere with the absorption of nutrients in the intestines. They excrete foods that are harmful to the digestive system. Without treatment, the worms can invade the brain, lungs and other organs.

It is recommended to make an appointment with a specialist gastroenterologist if you have the following signs of pathology:

  • lethargy, malaise.
  • allergic reaction, for example, skin rash, bronchial asthma.
  • a person eats too much or too little.
  • nausea and vomiting occur, but there are no signs of poisoning.
  • diarrhea, constipation;
  • weight loss with good appetite.
  • bad sleep;
  • increase in body temperature;
  • muscle and joint pain without physical activity;
  • enlarged, inflamed lymph nodes.
  • bruxism;
  • worms in stool;
  • itching in the perianal area.

If helminthic infestation is suspected, then the liver, spleen and lymph nodes are felt. Listed instruments can be enlarged.

In case of helminthiasis, the general blood test shows leukocytosis, eosinophilia and increased ESR.

Helminthic diseases are most accurately detected after 3 months from the onset, when helminths become sexually mature individuals. For purposes of diagnosis and monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment, laboratory tests are indicated:

  • peranal scraping for pinworm eggs.
  • stool analysis for worm eggs.
  • co-program.

Sputum, urine, vomit, contents of the duodenum and pieces of skin are used as material for examination and diagnosis.

To identify intestinal helminthic diseases, allergy tests are performed. Changes in internal organs are detected using:

  1. X-ray of the lungs.
  2. Ultrasound examination of the liver.
  3. Computed tomography of internal organs.
  4. Colonoscopy.
  5. Esophagogastroscopy.

Sometimes it is not easy to detect helminthiasis in humans, as worms lay eggs irregularly. To identify them, it is important to obtain material for research during the breeding season of helminths. Antibodies against worms are detected in the blood 2 months after infection. They are then not detected in the bloodstream but accumulate in the intestinal wall. Diagnosis is also difficult due to the variety of clinical signs. Often, experts prescribe research and treatment based on the indirect symptoms of helminthiasis.

Folk remedies against parasites

folk remedies against parasites

A well-known folk method for treating worms is pumpkin seeds. This product is suitable for children and adults. This product contains cucurbitins, which negatively affect the vital activity of helminths. However, it will not be possible to completely cure yourself of parasites with only pumpkin seeds. If you don't see a doctor or get tested, you can have complications because the worms multiply quickly. They are particularly dangerous when they affect internal organs and the brain.

How to get rid of worms - traditional medicine can be used in addition to treatment prescribed by a doctor.

Tansy infusion.Pour 1 tablespoon of tansy flowers into 200 ml of boiling water, cover with a lid, leave for 20 minutes, strain. Take the cold infusion 3-4 times a day, 4 tablespoons. The first dose is in the morning on an empty stomach, then 30 minutes before lunch and dinner.

Wormwood infusion.The bitter taste of this plant irritates the receptors in the oral cavity, which promotes the formation of gastric juice, bile and pancreatic enzymes. This plant contains hamazulene, which has a laxative and anti-inflammatory effect. It negatively affects the life cycle of helminths and has an anthelmintic effect.

To prepare the infusion, the dried wormwood is ground in a coffee grinder. Then, 2 teaspoons of plant material are poured into 300 ml of boiling water and left in a thermos for 6-8 hours. Then the infusion must be filtered. Take 100 ml in the morning before meals for 2-3 weeks. The product is kept in the refrigerator for no more than 2 days.

Clove infusion. This spice is widely used in folk medicine. The dried buds of this plant strengthen the function of the gastrointestinal tract, normalize digestion and increase immunity. Clove infusion is effective against worms.

To prepare it, pour 500 ml of water into 30 g of buds and wait for the product to cool completely. Take 1 glass orally before breakfast.

Tincture of cloves. Pour 30 g of buds into 500 ml of vodka (alcohol). Infuse the liquid in the dark for 2-3 weeks, then filter. Take 1 teaspoon of tincture before meals for 2-4 weeks.


prevention of worms in humans

To prevent worms in adults, it is important to follow the rules of personal hygiene. It is also necessary to instill them in children from the first years of life. These rules include:

  1. Wash your hands with soap after going outside, coming into contact with animals, using the toilet and before eating.
  2. Rinse the fruits and herbs well with water and rinse them with boiling water.
  3. Fish and seafood must undergo heat treatment for a long time.
  4. Use high quality and safe water for domestic purposes.
  5. You must use sanitary products, individual plates, towels and linens.
  6. For drinking, you can use boiled, filtered water.
  7. Indoors, you should regularly wipe surfaces with a damp cloth and wash floors.
  8. Once every 2 weeks you must wash the floors with detergent.

How to remove worms - in spring and autumn it is recommended to prevent helminthiasis with broad-spectrum anthelmintic agents. Pets should also undergo periodic anthelmintic treatment.

Worms are transmitted - if the rules of personal hygiene and prevention of helminthiasis are violated, all family members can become infected.